are listed in descending chronological order.
To the Test: What Every Educator and Policy-Maker Should Know
Volante, Concordia University
Teachers typically receive the brunt of the criticism for poor performance
on large-scale standardized tests. In order to stave off this criticism,
some teachers have begun to provide instruction that utilizes actual
or cloned items from these high-stakes tests. Such teaching to the
test rarely helps learning and has a detrimental effect on the teaching
profession as a whole. The present paper addresses the dangers of
directly teaching to a standardized test and the implications of
this practice for students, educators and policy makers. It also
discusses measures designed to promote constructive test preparation
activities. It argues that educators and policy makers both have
important roles in ending this practice.
Gender Equity Policy in Canadian Universities: Issues and Possibilities
M. Beaubier, University of Nebraska
Establishing gender equity in Canadian inter-university athletics
has been a challenging endeavor for policymakers. The problem of
crafting and implementing an effective policy has taken considerable
time and continues to be a difficult task for administrators. However,
success in this undertaking is important to higher education because
such policy provides an environment of opportunity and fairness
for participants. Furthermore, its establishment in post-secondary
athletics demonstrates a natural promotion of tenets central to
tertiary institutions. This paper investigates whether U.S. Title
IX athletic gender equity policy could be adapted for use in Canadian
higher education. This focus is relevant to Canadian inter-university
athletics because American Title IX legislation has been in place
for over thirty years and has withstood challenges in the legislative,
judicial, and executive branches of government. A discussion of
how U.S. policy directives might be implemented in the Canadian
environment and whether an adaptation may be in the contexts of
a partial exercise rather than a wholesale application is put forth.
in Babylon, Babylon in School: When Racial Profiling and Zero Tolerance
Patrick Solomon and Howard Palmer, York University
This study is about systemic containment of Black youth by authority
structures within schools and law enforcement agents in racialized
communities. Through the retrospective narratives of incarcerated
Black students in a secure custody institution, vivid insights are
provided into the construction of fear of Black youth and of the
ways that arbitrary power and authority operate within the contested
terrain of schools. Safe-schools policies of "zero tolerance"
and the ongoing practice of "racial profiling" appear
to converge in moving Black students through the "school-prison
Issue: Initial Teacher Education in Canada and the United Kingdom
Young, University of Manitoba and Christine
Hall, University of Nottingham
This special issue consists of nine chapter-length articles discussing
teacher education in Canada and the United Kingdom. In Part 1, the
authors focus on large, fundamental issues of teacher education,
especially as seen in the emerging post-modern international context.
In Parts 2 and 3, they discuss how these issues manifest themselves
in emerging, innovative practices in the two societies.
1: How is teachers' work changing?
Theorising Changes in Teachers' Work, by Christine Hall,
University of Nottingham
2. New Technologies and Teachers' Work, by Tony Fisher,
University of Nottingham
3. Teachers' Ethical Responsibilities in a Diverse Society,
by Nathalie Piquemal, University of Manitoba
2: How is teacher education changing?
Systems of Educating Teachers, by Jon Young, University
5. The Impact of Quality Assurance on Mentor Training in
Initial Teacher Education Partnerships,
by Bernadette Youens and Mary Bailey, University of Nottingham
6. Redefining Classroom Boundaries: Learning To Teach Using
by Do Coyle, University of Nottingham
7. Learning To Teach Collaboratively, by Peter Sorensen,
University of Nottingham
3: Developing teacher identity
8. Melissa's Story: Bridging the Theory/Practice Gap, by
Wayne Serebrin, University of Manitoba
9. Learning To Feel Like a Teacher, by Kelvin Seifert, University
the Schoolhouse Doors: Institutional Constraints on Parent and Community
Involvement in a School Improvement Initiative
Stelmach, University of Alberta
improvement literature emphasizes collaboration of teachers, parents,
and community members. Schools are challenged to create mutually
beneficial partnerships that result in improved student performance.
One source of challenge is schools’ organizational structures and
processes do not contribute to full and meaningful involvement of
non-professionals. Using the lens of institutional theory, this
paper reports a study that examined the organizational resistance
to including parents and others in one rural Alberta school district.
The district implemented Joyce Epstein’s school-home-community partnership
model in its Alberta Initiative for School Improvement (AISI) project.
The study used the District AISI Coordinator’s field notes, as well
as interviews with three parents who directly participated in AISI.
and Selection: Meeting the Leadership Shortage in One Large Canadian
Normore, Florida International University
This article investigates the recruitment and selection strategies
of one large Canadian school district in Ontario, called here the
"Northwestern School District." Data collection included
interviews, document analyses and observations, and were gathered
in 2001. Findings indicated that designated structured teams, financial
and emotional support from district office, and support for developing
professional growth portfolios were key to attracting candidates.
Other findings indicated a need to revisit district policies such
as the practice of rotating school principals every three to five
years, and the policy favoring internal promotion over promotion
from outside the district.
An Intersectoral Response to Children
with Complex Health Care Needs
Young, University of Toronto
Jasmin Earle, Saint Elizabeth Health Care, Toronto
Mark Dadebo, York University
The purpose of this paper is to stimulate debate on how to define
and enact public responsibility to children with complex health
care needs and their families. We present a program, developed using
the Auditor General’s framework for accountability that involves
Community Care Access Centres, schools and Saint Elizabeth Health
Care, a complex care nursing provider. The case study illustrates
how public responsibility was successfully enacted at a local level
within existing policies for children with complex health care needs.
There is no urgent need for policy to ‘catch up' with reality.
Rather there is a need for the cross-sectoral development of programs
that support policies.
“La Plume de Ma Tante" to "Parlez-Vous Français?”
The Making of French Language Policy in British Columbia, 1945-1982
Raptis and Thomas Fleming,
University of Victoria
During the first half of the twentieth century in British Columbia,
French language was considered a school subject to be taught as
any other using formal classical approaches. Generally, no specific
provincial or local policies existed to guide how French was taught
and learned. By 1981, however, British Columbia had developed explicit
language policies for implementing various programs, such as “core
French,” “French immersion,” and “programme-cadre.”
It did so despite the fact that fewer than two per cent of British
Columbians spoke French as their mother tongue, and only about one-half
of one per cent used French to communicate at home. The discussion
in this article reconstructs the historical context and events that
led British Columbia to embrace French language as a subject of
study as well as French as a vehicle for learning and instruction.
Why, from the end of World War II to the 1980s, did the province
embrace core French, cadre and immersion programmes?
Leadership and culture in schools in Nothern British Columbia: Bridge
Building and/or Re-balancing Act?
Foster, University of Alberta and Tim
Goddard, University of Calgary
This article reports findings from the completed third stage of
an investigation of educational leadership, policy, and organization
in select schools in Canada’s north. North as used here refers
to the area coterminous with the boreal forest region south of the
arctic (Bone, 1992). The research questions guiding this investigation
were (i) what are school members’ (e.g., educators, parents,
students, community members working with and in the school) perceptions
and expectations of educational leadership in northern schools?
and (ii) how are leadership and culture in these schools intertwined?
In order to address the research questions, a qualitative case study
methodology was adopted. The two case studies included in this article
report on schools located in northern British Columbia. In the following,
we present interpretations and a discussion of three themes as they
relate to school members’ perceptions and understandings of
the (i) purposes of curriculum and schooling, (ii) role of the principal,
and (iii) relationship of the schools to their communities. In concluding,
we draw on key findings as we urge researchers and educators to
consider students’ perceptions and expectations of schooling
in the future development of curricula and pedagogical approaches
that will benefit all learners, including students of Aboriginal
ancestry. Finally, we argue that practitioners, policy makers, and
researchers need to examine the potential of models of leadership
and community-based education informed by indigenous values, in
addressing issues of equity and power in Canada’s northern
Educational Psychology as a Policy Science: A Conversation
note: Under the guest editorship of Nancy Knapp,
this issue of CJEAP experiments with a new format for exploring
issues related to educational policy. The issue has several parts:
1) an introduction to the issue by Dr. Knapp, 2) an exploration
policy implications of educational psychology by David Berliner,
former president of the American Educational Research Association,
and 3) responses by four prominent educators and educational psychologists
(Jere Brophy, Jeanne Ormrod, Virginia Richardson, and Asa Hilliard).
In the near future, in addition, CJEAP will publish a brief rejoinder
to the responses by David Berliner.
to This Special Issue
Knapp, Guest Editor, University of Georgia
Psychology as a Policy Science
David Berliner, Arizona
Educational psychologists should not ignore what they can
contribute to the formulation of public policies about educational
issues, even though they may have been trained to approach their
work in "scientific" and value-free ways. Since policy-makers
and leaders of society normally make decisions on the basis of particular
social values, educational psychologists should engage with those
values when describing research findings to the public. For example,
educational psychology research has important information and conclusions
to share with the public about high-stakes testing and about the
training and certification of teachers. Educational psychologists
have a professional obligation to share that information in ways
that shows a commitment to serve society, that shows a simultaneous
commitment to scholarly knowledge and practical action, and that
shows a willingness to work with the uncertainty of the field of
education. We are able to do this effectively because educational
psychology itself is a scholarly discipline in the fullest sense:
it has findings, concepts, principles, technologies, and theories
Choice, not a Duty
Jere Brophy, Michigan State
an Identity Crisis of a Different Sort: A Response to Berliner’s
Call To Action
Ormrod, University of Northern Colorado (Emerita) & University
of New Hamphire
Response To David Berliner
Hilliard III—Baffour Amankwatia II, Georgia State University
Research: A Critique
Richardson, University of Michigan
Berliner, Arizona State University
Psychology as a Policy Science: The Beginning of a Conversation...
Knapp, University of Georgia
Schooling: Learning from Dissent
Luke, University of Victoria
Abstract: This paper is a discussion of home schooling
as an alternative to the public school system, an alternative at
the furthest end of the spectrum of dissent. The discussion places
home schooling on the menu of choice that has come to define many
aspects of Canada’s publicly-funded service systems, looks
at the ideological foundations of home schooling, and explores what
its critique of the public school system may have to offer current
school reform agendas.
From Denominational to Linguistic Education in Quebec
Young, Eastern Shores School Board
Lawrence Bezeau, University of
April of 1997, the governments of Quebec and Canada, through a constitutional
amendment, eliminated all denominational rights and privileges respecting
education in the province of Quebec. Consequently, Quebec abolished
denominational school boards, replacing them with English-language
and French-language boards. This paper examines the nature of this
transition with an emphasis on what is now the Eastern Shores School
Board, an English-language board serving the Gaspe peninsula, the
Magdalen Islands, and the North Shore of the St. Lawrence River.
Why Teachers Participate in
Decision-making and The Third Continuum
Anderson, University of Saskatchewan
Shared decision-making has been related to many reasons
as to whether, when, or not to include teachers in the process.
For the most part, the use of shared decision-making attempted to
better implement decisions and sometimes is seen as a means to enhance
teacher leadership. This article discusses the literature from a
historical perspective presenting a review of factors affecting
teacher participation in decision-making. While the history of shared
decision-making can be seen as having two continuums (Taylor and
Tashakkori, 1997) a third continuum of decision-making is put forward
in the following pages, notably that of actual successful influence
on decisions which relates to teacher leadership in schools.
Policies Affecting ESL Instruction
G. Kouritzin and
Patrick G. Mathews,
University of Manitoba
This archival research review aims to examine what policies,
federal, provincial, and local, have, or could potentially have,
an impact on ESL teaching and learning in the province of Manitoba.
A politically-motivated close reading of the language in the policies,
and of the nature and intent of the practices they describe, reveals
the institutional attitudes toward immigrants, English as a second
language (ESL) students, and the nature of public education in Canada.
The article demonstrates that there are numerous and considerable
political barriers to the full inclusion of ESL learners in the
educational system, and concludes that many federal, provincial
and local policies support discriminatory practices.
District Deficits and Program Spending in Alberta
Neu, Alison Taylor,
and Elizabeth Ocampo,
University of Alberta
Starting from the financial information for the population of
Alberta School Districts for the 1997 to 2000 fiscal years, this
study examines the association between school district deficits
and sub-program spending in the areas of severely disabled education,
ESL education and technology integration. Our analysis highlights
how the financial performance of individual school districts is
closely associated with the specific program spending choices made
by different school districts-choices that arguably influence the
quality of education available to students in different programs
in different districts.
a Reconsideration of Biography as an Instrument for Studying Leadership
in Educational Administration
University of Manitoba
The thesis of this paper is that biography does offer something
valuable to educational administration that it currently lacks,
and that biography ought to be reconsidered as a legitimate instrument
for the study of educational leadership. Traditional research methodologies
(questionnaire surveys, for example) normally associated with positivist
approaches to the study of educational leadership remain theorists'
predominant mode of inquiry. Such methods, however, do not pay sufficient
attention to the role played by institutional contexts in the social
construction of leaders and leadership systems. The difference between
biography and social science also relates to the level of generality
? a sort of micro/macro distinction. Educational leadership theorists,
by training and inclination, look to the general, while biography
deals with the particular. Biography can be moved beyond narration
and storytelling to the construction of case studies to test or
evaluate theories. And it can be argued that to understand a system,
we need to look at leadership both close up and from a long view.
Previous approaches to the study of educational leadership decontextualized
not only the decisions but also the process involved in developing
them. Biography can restore the wholeness of the entire act of leadership.
Resistance to Gender Equity Policy in Educational Organizations
The University of Western Ontario
I became interested in researching the phenomenon of resistance
to employment policy that attempted to increase gender equity
in educational organizations because it came up over and over
... at social gatherings, a cash register in a store while I was
Christmas shopping, in my graduate courses, and in my work at
the Faculty of Education at The University of Western Ontario
with both colleagues and students. I found that students in the
Social Foundations course that I teach could generally see the
fairness of gender equity in the classroom ? at least in terms
of calling on girls more often, assessing their work fairly, ensuring
that they developed an interest in highly valued courses such
as Math and Science, meeting the learning needs of boys in language
and so on. However, when we talked about gender equity employment
policy, the men were often openly hostile and the women resistant
to what they perceived as "needless" efforts on their behalf.
I found that rational argumentation and statistical evidence,
which strongly demonstrated sex-based discrimination in educational
organizations, while compelling in some ways, was simply not enough
to persuade students or colleagues that there was a need for policy
to rework the gendered distribution of labour in educational organizations.
Capacity For A Learning Community
and Larry Sackney,
University of Saskatchewan
Since the early days of the 20th century, schools and educators
have been subjected to numerous calls for improvement of their
performance. A curious aspect of this phenomenon is that school-based
educators (teachers and school administrators alike) have usually
been positioned as objects to be manipulated and controlled rather
than as professional creators of a learning culture. In recent
years, however, this position has lost considerable credibility
because school-based educators are exactly the people who deal
directly with the learning of children. From that standpoint,
scholars and change agents have begun to advance the notion of
the learning community as a preferred strategy for school improvement.
The metaphor of the learning community assumes, first, that schools
are expected to facilitate the learning of all individuals, and,
second, that educators are ideally positioned to address fundamental
issues and concerns in relation to learning. Within this metaphor,
school people are central to questions of educational practice,
change, and improvement; they are the ones charged with the tasks
of identifying and confronting the problems and mysteries of professional
practices. But simply charging them with this responsibility will
not necessarily bring about the types of profound improvement
that are envisioned within a learning community. Instead, capacity
for a learning community needs deliberately and explicitly to
be built among educators and within schools and school systems.
In this paper, we present a model that frames our understandings
about the ways in which people can construct a learning community.
The model consists of three pivotal capacities that we believe
need to be built if a school is to function as a learning community:
personal capacity, interpersonal capacity, and organizational
capacity. In a recently published book (Mitchell & Sackney,
2000), we provided a fuller development of the model and we embedded
it in data from several studies and projects that we have undertaken
over the past decade. In this paper, we present a summarized version
of the model and of our foundational assumptions.
Flight of the Middle Class from Public Schools: A Canadian Mirage
In this article I challenge the widely held perception that
an increasing number of middle class Canadian parents are forsaking
the public school system and enrolling their children in private
schools. After first providing an overview of the governance
of Canadian education, I describe five versions of private education.
Following a review of current student enrolment outside the public
system, I discuss alternative strategies to privatization.
Although examples from across the country are cited, the governance
of education in Canada is a provincial rather than national affair.
The majority of the examples used are drawn from Alberta.
Violence, Schools, and the Management Question:
A Discussion of Zero Tolerance and Equity in Public Schooling
Mount Saint Vincent University
In response to growing public concern and the reported increase
in child/youth aggression and violence, the efficacy of school
disciplinary practices and school discipline polices are being
reevaluated in schools throughout Canada. In many instances,
provincial departments of education, school boards, and schools
are basing the reconstruction of their school discipline policies
on the principles of Zero Tolerance. There is some concern
that a Zero Tolerance approach to managing student behaviour will
reinforce the marginalization of underrepresented individuals
and groups through a set of disciplinary practices favouring the
social behaviours of persons representative of the Anglo-European
Canadian community. A major challenge for school policy
makers, therefore, is the construction of school social/behaviour
management policies that are effective, inclusive, and sensitive
to the specific yet ever-changing needs of students and their
respective socio-political communities.
of the Alberta Accountability Framework
Burger, Government of Alberta
Merla Bolender, Government
Valerie Keates, Government
David Townsend, University
In 1994 the government of Alberta introduced legislation that
mandated a comprehensive accountability framework for basic education.
The action research project reported here is based on participant
observation of the implementation of the accountability framework
during the 1997-98 school year from the perspectives of a school
principal, a central office administrator and a ministry of education
official. The research is based on a literature review,
daily journal writing, and documents analysis. The paper is supplemented
by an independent critique. Observations and conclusions
are organized around the perspectives of the researchersÅ
respective roles. The overall conclusion is that the Alberta
accountability model is in an evolutionary period of development
with substantial adjustments needed to ensure successful implementation.
School Improvement in the United Kingdom and Canada
University of Nottingham, United Kingdom
The process of school improvement remains something of a 'black
box'. While there are ample descriptions of different approaches to
school improvement, there are fewer studies of a comparative nature.
This article provides a comparison of two well-established school
improvement programmes in England and Canada. The Improving the Quality
of Education For All Project in England and the Manitoba School Improvement
Programme in Canada have both demonstrated considerable success in
their work with schools. This article analyses their different approaches
to school improvement and concludes that their common strength lies
in their ability to encourage teacher collaboration and to foster
professional learning communities.
Reform for the New Millennium: Leadership Capacity in Schools and
California State University at Hayward
The following is a script of the keynote address that Dr. Linda
Lambert of California State University at Hayward, presented to
the delegates attending the 1999 Western Canada Educational Administrators'
conference in Edmonton in October. Dr. Lambert is the author of
the book "Building Leadership Capacity in Schools." As well, she
is first author of the books "Constructivist Leadership" and "Teachers
as Constructivist Leaders."
Centralism - Governance in the field of education:
Evidence from Norway and British Columbia
School of Teacher Education
This article focuses on decentralization as a governance strategy
in education. The author, Gustav Karlsen, first presents theoretical
aspects of the phenomenon of decentralization and contextualizes
them within the education research literature. He then analyzes
the dynamics of decentralization that normally take place when governing
strategies designed to decentralize authority and power are implemented.
In particular, he emphasizes four aspects of that dynamic interactive
process. In support of his argument, he provides evidence gathered
from Norway and, to some extent, from the province of British Columbia,
Canada. The dynamic interaction in the decentralization process,
Karlsen contends, is implicit in the title of the article, "decentralized
Origins of Educational Reform: A Comparative Perspective
Levin, Ph. D.
Jonathan Young, Ph.
This paper examines the origins of reform programs in four
countries. The authors interest is in the origins of and justifications
for educational reforms, in particular, the role of ideology in
the initiation and direction of some of the educational reforms
examined in this study. The paper is a four year study that examined
education in four countries, namely, Canada, the United States,
England and New Zealand. The authors focused on these four aspects
of reform in the countries: 1) Origins, 2) Approval, 3) Implementation,
and 4) Effects.
Initiatives to Restructure Canadian School Governance in the 1990s
University of Victoria
This paper examines the character of developments in the restructuring
movement now underway in Canada. It is divided into three parts.
The first part reviews the broad historical context in education
and government which has given rise to the resturcturing movement.
Part two examines the main forms, features, and traits of restructuring
initiatives as they are now presenting themselves in provinces from
the Atlantic to the Pacific. And part three explores several of
the central ideas underlying provincial restructuring efforts, the
agendas and implications of restructuring largely unstated in official
documents, or what might otherwise be described as restructuring's
Boards, District Consolidation, and Educational Governance
in British Columbia, 1872 - 1995
and B. Hutton,
It was not surprising to see that Education Minister Art Charbonneau's
November 17, 1995, plan to "reduce significantly the number
of school boards" in British Columbia was greeted with a certain
amount of skepticism both within and outside the educational community.1
Criticisms of the NDP Government's proposal to restructure educational
governance in the Province by reducing the number of school boards
from 75 to 37 were immediate and largely predictable in nature.
Professionalization, and Educational Politics in British Columbia
of British Columbia
Despite the fact that they are public employees in a bureaucratic
institution, teachers in British Columbia, Canada, have achieved a
measure of professional autonomy and influence unparalleled in other
North American jurisdictions. This achievement is in part a consequence
of conflict between the British Columbia Teachers' Federation (BCTF)
and successive provincial Social Credit governments, groups representing
divergent views about education, the part education plays in the lives
of citizens, about the relationship between citizens and the state,
and about globalization.
Employment Practices? Teachers and Principals Discuss Some "Part-Time"
Arrangements for Alberta Teachers
Young and Kathy Grieve
There are many theoretical arguments that support diverse staffing
arrangements in school organizations, but surprisingly little evidence
of progress in achieving equitable rather than exploitative forms
of such diversity. In a trend that echoes changes in the structure
of the wider labor market, an increasing proportion of Alberta teachers
is employed part time. In 1995-96, 14.9% or 3500 of Alberta's 23,600
teachers were part-timers, nearly a 40% increase over five years
(Alberta Education, 1996).
overall restructuring of employment has been widely discussed
from many different perspectives, but no systematic scholarly
attention has been directed toward this phenomenon as it pertains
to Canadian public school teachers. What are the day-to-day realities
of living out "non-standard" teaching arrangements, and what politics
and ideologies engender those realities?
exploratory research compares the enactment of three types of
part-time work employment policies for teachers in one Alberta
school district. About 30 teachers and administrators participated
in interviews and told us their views about the professional,
personal, educational, and organizational implications of these
different part-time work policies and arrangements. We report
an overview of our findings in this article by organizing the
participants' perspectives according to three general themes --
Motivations, Negotiations, and Implications -- with an emphasis
on implications related to "postmodern" employment in schools.
the Mail Room to the Vice-Presidency:
The Socialization of Alberta School Trustees
School Boards Association
study in the Province of Alberta similar to work done in Arizona,
U.S.A. (Stout, 1982), indicates that many of the same dynamics are
at play during the time that citizens become seasoned school trustees.
Teachers for Urban Schools: A View From the Field
Erskine-Cullen and Anne Marie Sinclair,
of Education, University of Toronto
in large urban centres are places where teachers are faced with
a plethora of challenges that range from poverty, violence, cultural
diversity and a multitude of languages. Preparing teachers to teach
in these environments is a problem which many faculties of education
are beginning to examine more closely. The purpose of this study
was to discover what practising teachers in urban schools saw as
the major differences between urban and other schools, day-to-day
life in these schools, and what recommendations they had for teacher
preparation programs. The findings provide interesting perceptions
and recommendations from teachers about the characteristics of an
urban school, challenges they present, characteristics of a successful
urban teacher, as well as recommendations for teacher preparation
programs. The authors suggest that the distinction between urban
and suburban schools is geographic only, and that possibly, describing
schools based on a continuum of challenging needs would be more
accurate and beneficial to educators.
in Value Orientations in the Implementation of
Implications for Moral Leadership
Institute for Studies in Education
In an effort to understand the administrator's role in implementing
change and the influence of values on the change process, a study
of the implementation of multi-grades in a traditionally single-graded
school in rural Newfoundland was undertaken. Ashbaugh and Kasten's
(1984) typology of operant values in educational administration
was used to analyse the data. The findings provide insight into
the value orientations of the various stakeholders involved in the
multi-grade change. This study underscores the role of the administrator
for understanding variations in value orientations as a prerequisite
for the development of shared values in the successful implementation
of educational change.
New Models of Curriculum in Changing Times: Year 1
Institute for Studies in Education
Susan M. Drake,
This paper explores the findings from the first year of a three-year
study involving four school boards. The study focuses on how these
boards are dealing with the changes mandated in curriculum policy
documents developed by the Ontario Ministry of Education and Training.
Framing the Problem of Violence in Schools: A Response
article responds to the issues about violence raised by Hanne Mawhinney
in Issue Two.
an Archeology of Policy that Challenges Conventional Framing of
the Problem of Violence in Schools
article examines the construction of youth violence as a problem
requiring legal and regulatory responses by different levels of
government. The author takes direction for this effort from critics
who argue that there is a need to examine the assumptions guiding
the way in which the problem of school violence is framed at both
macro (provincial government), and micro (school board) political
levels (Matthew, 1992).
University of Manitoba
The context of secondary schooling has changed significantly in
recent years, leading to a need for change in secondary education.
There are few signs that the necessary changes at the required scale
are occurring. The paper suggests some priorities for change, and
outlines some actions that would help bring these about.