Research in the Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics encompasses a diverse range of pharmacology sub-disciplines and thus facilitates exposure of trainees to a comprehensive, multi-disciplinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics Graduate Training Program. Our research takes an integrative approach where cell culture, organ and whole animal studies are combined to address complex issues related to drug action and disease. Trainees have opportunities to specialize their research activities to an area of choice, or may tailor a research program toward achieving well-rounded expertise. Regardless of the research area, a tremendous strength of the Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics is the availability of a wide range of technical approaches for achieving research goals. Molecular and cellular approaches are employed readily by investigators as useful research tools, but we also realize the growing scientific importance and career marketability of being able to test theories in organs and in the whole living organism. Several investigators in the Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics offer unique opportunities to trainees by utilizing intact organ and/or whole animal pharmacological models to probe mechanisms of disease and novel pharmacological treatments.