7.244 Course Outline, Fall 1998
Instructor: Jeff Young, Room 336 Wallace Building
T.A.: Janice Liwanag, 359 Wallace
Text: Davis, G.H., Structural Geology of Rocks and Regions. 2nd Ed.,
John Wiley & Sons, 1996.
||Maps and Miscellaneous Assignments
||Field Trip Assignment / Assignment
||Lab Final (based on lab & map assignments - 3 hrs.)
||Lecture Final (based on lectures - 2 hrs.)
Lectures: Slot 9 (Tuesday and Thursday, 11:30 a.m., Room 217 Wallace Building)
Labs: Slot 23 (Tuesday, 2:30 p.m., Room 245 Wallace Building)
Field Trip: Sunday, October 4th (8:00 to 4:30)
- 1. Introdution to
structural geology ; primary and non-tectonic structures; unconformities
- 2. Force, stress, deformation and strain in geological materials; Mohr diagrams
- 3. Factors affecting deformational behaviour. Composition, lithostatic
pressure, porewater pressure, temperature, time strain rate, strength anistropy,
etc. Experimental and field examples.
- 4. Brittle deformation; tensile cracking and shear fractures; joint and vein sets and systems
- 5. Ductile deformation; simple shear, pure shear; homogenous and heterogenous, deformation processes and
- 6. Faults: fault nomenclature, net slip, apparent movement, classification
schemes. Normal faults, thrust faults, strike slip faults. Repetition and omission of strata. Fault plane features and physiographic features associated
with faulting. Stable sliding and stick-slip fault mechanisms and earthquakes.
- 7. Folds: fold nomenclature, classification based on closure, symmetry,
orientation and style. Mechanisms of folding. Small scale structures associated
with folds. Fold systems. Introduction to polyphase folding.
- 8. Cleavage: penetrative cleavage, spaced cleavage, microlithons.
Schistosity, slatey cleavage, fracture cleavage, strain slip cleavage,
pressure solution cleavage. Cleavage refraction. Relation to other structures.
- 9. Lineations: mineral lineations, mineral aggregate lineations,
S-intersection lineations, crenulation lineations, fold axis lineations,
relation to other structures.
- 10. Boudinage, and pinch and swell structures.
The expression and interpretation of geological structures on maps and
cross sections are important components of any course in structural geology.
We will deal with these components through a series of map interpretation
exercises, assigned in lectures. Each assignment will require the preparation
of a cross section and interpretation of the geologic history.
The laboratory sessions will be three hours. They will consist of an
instructional session (with handouts) followed by an assignment. Some assigments
may be due before leaving the lab. Otherwise they will be due at the beginning
of the following lab. Assignments will be graded and returned, usually
the following week. The following is a list of topics that are planned
for the weekly laboratory portion of the course (not necessarily in the
order listed below).
- 1. Orientation of planar and linear geologic features. Definitions
of strike (strike lines), true dip (true dip line), apparent dip (apparent
dip lines) of planar features; plunge and pitch of linear features. Includes orthographic and
trigonometric relationships of the above features.
- 2. Plotting of orientation data on stereonets.
- 3. Stereonet solutions to angular problems involving apparent and
true dip, orientations of lines of intersection between two planes, dihedral
angles between two planes.
- 4. True thickness and apparent thickness of beds.
- 5. Outcrop patterns produced by dipping layered sequences, faulting
sequences, angular unconformities, and folds. Three point problems.
- 6. Cross sections.
- 7. Drill hole problems.
- 8. Translational fault problems.
- 9. Angular unconformity restoration problems.
- 10. Rotational fault problems
- 11. Structure contour problem, faulted folds.
- 12. Review.
- 1. Set of triangles (30-60o and 45o - 10
- 2. One 6 inch protractor, or Douglas proctractor
- 3. Selection of pencils - 2H and 4H
- 4. Set of coloured pencils
- 5. One good quality set of compasses and dividers
- 6. Eraser
- 7. Unlined paper - 8.5" x 11"
- 8. Metric graph paper - 8.5" x 11"
- 9. Metric scale
- 10. Tracing paper or onion skin
- 11. Scotch tape
- 12. Flat head tack